May is Asian-Pacific American Heritage Month. It is a celebration of Asians and Pacific Islanders and their history in the United States of America. Starting on May 30, 2013 History Education Hawaii, Inc., added this to our Hawaii History Blog Project. It is a Hawaii-centered historical blog focused on Commodore Perry's 1853-1854 expedition to Japan. All of the texts are transcriptions by volunteers from Hawaii-based news articles from The Polynesian (official organ of the Hawaiian government) and The Friend, published by Rev. Samuel C. Damon of the American Seaman's Friend Society.

Monday, July 15, 2013

The Story of Joseph Heco, First Naturalized American from Japan: His Hawaii Connection -and the Perry Expedition (1862)

The Story of Joseph Heco, First Naturalized American from Japan: His Hawaii Connection -and the Perry Expedition (1862)

Rev. Samuel C. Damon, publisher of the Honolulu based monthly newspaper, The Friend, published an interesting article in the July 1862 edition about a Japanese national named Joseph Heco. At the time of the news story Heco had been appointed interpreter to the U.S. Consul at Kanagawa. He was in Honolulu on his way back to Japan to begin his duties.

Years before Joseph Heco was among the Japanese  
who found themselves swept out to sea due to typhoons, only to find himself and the crew of his “junk” rescued by an American ship. They were taken to San Francisco. That was only the beginning of a colorful life for young Joseph Heco. His future would include an American education, an American government service position, voyages on the Black Ships Powhatan, Susquehanna among other vessels, and an act of diplomatic mediation that saved Yokohama from destruction by the Russian fleet –leading to the ceding of the northern section of Sakhalin Island to the Russian Empire.

He was appointed Secretary to the Captain of the Fenimore Cooper. That ship was lost in a typhoon in Japan. The American crew would go on to board the Japanese warship Kanrin Maru that, along with the U.S.S. Powhatan, would traverse the Pacific Ocean with the Japanese Embassy in early 1860.

He also worked for U.S. Consul Townsend Harris in Kanagawa.

Damon’s article quotes an article from the San Francisco Evening Bulletin:

It afford us pleasure to meet again this gentleman. He is young in years, but old in adventures. We learn from him that he has been appointed interpreter to the U.S. Consul at Kanagawa, and is now proceeding thence to enter upon his duties. His sympathies are unmistakably with the North in the great struggle. During his last visit to America, he spent several weeks in Baltimore, where he had ample opportunity to become acquainted with the sentiments of Secesh! He is taking with him plans and specifications of iron-clad vessels of war, for the information of the Japanese Government, which will doubtless induce the Japanese to countermand the order which they have sent to the United States for building a first-class gun-boat after the old style.

The following notice of Mr. Heco, we copy from a late Evening Bulletin:

THE STORY OF JOSEPH HECO, THE JAPANESE. –Among the late arrivals from the Eastern States was Joseph Heco, who, although Japanese by birth, in an American by education and citizenship, and has been from time to time, during the last ten years, a resident of San Francisco. Mr. Heco’s adventures have been so varied and curious, that we have requested him to give us a slight sketch of his history. He has done so, and it forms the basis for the following narrative, which will be found quite interesting.

It seems that Heco’s father was a wealthy landed proprietor, residing about thirty miles from Osaka, an important seaport in the southern part of Japan, in which city resided his brother, who has engaged in commerce. Young Heco, at the age of 13, was sent to Osaka to learn commerce and navigation from his uncle. In the summer of 1850, he went in one of his uncle’s junks to Jeddo. The junk arrived safely at its destination, discharged, and having taken in a return cargo, sailed for Osaka via Worangawa. After leaving the latter place, the junk fell in with a typhoon, was disabled and blown out to sea. After remaining fifty days at the mercy of the waves, the wreck was fallen in with by the American bark Auckland, Capt. Jennings, who took off the crew (in all 17 persons) and brought them to San Francisco. They arrived here in February, 1851. The Collector of the Port placed all these persons on board the revenue cutter, and wrote to the Government at Washington for instructions as to their disposition.

Government, with the laudable desire to set an example of humanity, and to cultivate good fellowship with Japan, sent the sloop of war St. Marys to take these castaways back to their own country. They accordingly embarked on board this vessel, and sailed for Hong Kong, where they were transferred on board the U.S. steamer Susquehanna, to await the arrival of the Japanese expedition under Commodore Perry.

After several months of delay, Heco determined to return to San Francisco, took passage on board the bark Sarah Hooper, and arrived here in the fall of 1852. He was accompanied by the second mate, and one of the sailors. The Second mate, Toro, will be remembered by many of our readers as a porter at the bank of Wells, Fargo & Co.

At that time Beverley C. Sanders was Collector here, and took Heco, who was then about 15 years old, under his protection, with the intention of educating him, thinking that he might some day be very useful, both to his own country and ours. With this view Mr. Sanders took him to the Eastern States and placed him at school in Baltimore. Heco afterwards returned to San Francisco and continued his schooling here, until early in 1856, when he entered the counting-house of Macondray & Co., in this city, where he received a thorough mercantile education.

Heco then accompanied Dr. W.M. Gwin to Washington, in hopes of obtaining from the United States Government some appointment in their service at Japan, which would secure him from any fear of molestation from his own countrymen. He succeeded in obtaining the position of Secretary to the Captain of the Fenimore cooper, which vessel was to sail from San Francisco on a surveying expedition in the Pacific Ocean and on the coast of Japan. Owing to severe illness, Heco was obliged to leave the Fenimore cooper at Honolulu. After his recovery he took passage for Hong Kong in the clipper ship Sea Serpent. From Hong Kong he went to Shanghae in the U.S. steamer Powhatan, and thence to Jeddo in the U.S. steamer Mississippi.

Shortly after Heco’s arrival in Japan, the Fenimore Cooper was lost, and he was left to his own resources. He entered into business as commission agent, custom-house broker and interpreter, and was of great service to our Consul at Kanagawa, owing to his knowledge of the English and Japanese languages. On one occasion, a lieutenant from one of the Russian frigates was murdered by the Japanese at Yokohama. The Russian Admiral applied to the Japanese authorities for the delivery of the murderers. Receiving no satisfaction from the Government, he determined to destroy Yokohama; but the U.S. Consul, Mr. Dorr, advised him to employ Heco as mediator, which he did. Heco not being able to find the assassins, arranged with the Japanese Government to compromise the matter by ceding to Russia a portion of the Saghalien Island, and in that way saved Yokohama from bombardment and destruction by the Russian fleet.

Owing to the peculiar distinctions made by the native Japanese between Government officials and persons engaged merely in mercantile pursuits, Heco found his position in Kanagawa a disagreeable one, and decided to try his luck again in Washington. He returned to San Francisco, and proceeded to Washington, taking with him strong letters of recommendation to the most influential persons both in and out of Congress. His visit was highly successful, and he has been appointed Interpreter to the Consulate at Kanagawa. This appointment enables him to wear a diplomatic uniform, and will give him among his countrymen a rank equal to that of Lieutenant-Governor of Kanagawa owing to his being Acting Vice-Consul, in the event of the absence of the U.S. Consul.

Mr. Heco informs us that he has also the privilege of transacting business on his own account at Kanagawa. There are but few instances where a shipwrecked lad of thirteen has, in the space of ten years, by his own energy and courage, mastered a new language, and become thoroughly acquainted with the habits and customs of a nation of whom he had never heard before. The future career of this young gentleman will be watched with interest by all Americans, and more especially by the people of this city, among whom he has lived so long, and to many of whom he is personally known. In Mr. Heco, Americans will, we believe, always have a true and it may be a powerful friend in Japan; and we and all our people most heartily wish him every success in the commercial pursuits to which he is now about to turn his attention in that country.

Friday, June 21, 2013

Arrival of the U.S.S. Frigate Mississippi (1854)

Source: The Polynesian. Honolulu: Saturday, October 28, 1854.

This vessel, -late the flag ship of Commodore Perry of the Japan Squadron, arrived at this port on the 23d inst., in 22 days from Simoda, Japan. The following is a List of her Officers:

LIEUTENANTS- Edmund Lasnier, Wm. L. Maury, [Hydrographic duty] J.M.B. Clitz, C.M. Morris.
ACTING LIEUTENANTS- Wm A. Webb, S. Nicholson.
MASTER- John Knell.
PURSER- Wm. Speiden.
SURGEON- D.S. Green, Ass't. do L.S. Williams.
CHAPLAIN- Geo. Jones.
MARINE OFFICER- Capt. R. Tansill.
O.H. Perry, Commodore's Secretary.
PASSED MIDSHIPMEN- J.H. March, W.T. Jones, K.R. Breese; S.C. Mish, Midshipman.
J.W. Spalding, Captain's Clerk.
A.L.C. Portman, Com'd  "
Wm. Speiden, Jr., Parser's "
ENGINEERS- 1st Assistants, Robert Danby, Wm. Holland, 2d do., E.D. Robie, J.D. Mercer.
GUNNER- J.R. Clark.
BOATSWAIN- Amos Clark.
SAIL MAKER- Jacob Stephens.

We are enabled  to furnish an outline of the movements of the Mississippi since leaving China. Her run to Simoda, in Japan, from Hong Kong was less than 19 days, having reached there on the 21st September.

The day before her departure homeward, Commodore Perry left for home in the British Mail streamer Ganges, by way of Ceylon and Suez. On leaving, a parting salute of seventeen guns was fired by his old ship, and a like number by the razed Macedonian, as the steamer passed her. Capt. Joel B. Abbott of the latter ship was left in temporary command of the vessels that now remain in the East India Squadron.

The stay of the Mississippi at Simoda this time, was about ten days. The intercourse of her officers with the officers and people of the the place, was marked by much confidence on the part of the Japanese, and almost by the entire absence of the restraint and apparent suspicion which had been evinced on the occasions of the Mississippi's former visits, and a decided change was marked in all classes. Purchases were easily made of whatever they had to sell. The shopkeeper was no longer shy, and made the most tempting display of his wares. By the aid of his fingers her would both quickly and eagerly tell you how many hundreds of the copper coin you would be in debt for his matchless lacquer of curious lantern. His willingness "to turn an honest penny" from your pocket to his own was not at all dubious, and he experienced neither fatigue or aversion in "sitting at the receipt" of the American's Izelco.

Simoda, after its selection as one of the American ports, was declared an Imperial city, and is no longer under the immediate government of the Prince of the province of Idzoo, in which it is situated, and is now the place of residence of some five Imperial officers. -During the late visit of the Mississippi, some of them were absent at Yedo, but those who remained were very friendly in their greetings. Capt. Lee, with a suite if officers, made an official call on the Lieutenant Governor, where they were cordially received and entertained with pleasant edibles, a la Japanaise. This call was returned by the Governor with a suite, when the best feeling prevailed, and an opportunity afforded of returning his civilities. 

The big guns of the American steamers must have roused up the Japanese on the subject of ordinance. A junk, on her return to Nagasaki, was lying at the harbor, that had lately taken a heavy mortar to Yedo. -They had built at Uraga a vessel after one of the American store ships, and singularly, painted her red and black.

About 2 o'lock on the 1st of October, the Mississippi left Simoda, towing the Southampton clear of the port. The two ships parted company off the volcano island of Ohosima. The Southampton is also bound to Honolulu. The Mississippi for several days after leaving port encountered adverse wind and weather, and on the 7th inst. experienced one of those circular storms known as typhoons, which buffeted her for some hours, with nearly the violence of a hurricane. She stood nobly, but did not come out entirely unscathed, having during the severity of the blow capsized one of her large forward guns, lost a metallic boat from its davits, had one of her wheel-house boats crushed up and washed away, the side of the wheelhouse itself broken cut, and its entire top lifted by the force of the sea.

After this severe gale the passage of the Mississippi to this port was quite a pleasant one, and rendered still more so by contrast with the weather which had preceded it. She was out some twenty-two days and odd hours, having made the passage from Simoda, under sail and steam, and gone over a track per log of three thousand five hundred and thirty-eight miles. She is now coaling and repairing damages, and is expected to leave homeward, via San Francisco, in a week or ten days. Her officers and crew are all well. 

A Sailor in Japan (1854)

Source: The Polynesian. Honolulu: Saturday, November 11, 1854.

The following gossiping letter was written by a Sailor in the Japan Squadron, and lets one into many little secrets concerning the Japanese not before known to the world at large.

"Last Saturday was a bright sunny day, and at 8 A.M. Danby and I went ashore to take up the railroad track, and box up the locomotive, tender and car ready for sending them to Yedo. At 12 M we had everything done, (these Japanese carpenters are quick workmen,) and went in to the Reception House to get our dinners. The Reception House was several different apartments; the first you enter is used as a smoking room; it is carpeted with a straw matting, and the furniture consists simply of a large brass vase, containing a charcoal fire, with brass chop-sticks to lift out the coal when you wish to lite your pipe; around this vase Japanese officers of rank may always be seen sitting on their knees-or squatted I should call it, for they use no chairs-and stoically smoking. 

As soon as we entered they would offer us a pipe and tobacco, without rising, and generally we would accept their offer and squat down alongside them. They always lay off their sandals and enter their houses in their stocking feet; but we tramp over their mats shoes and all. The sides of this room are ornamented with an outlandish landscape on a gilt ground, and the principal feature of the landscape was a large number of long-legged, white cranes. From the smoking room we entered the principal reception room. This, too, is embellished with a great number of landscapes, similar to those in the smoking room; but these are like our clothes-bars. On each side of the reception room wide benches, like a low table, are placed, and covered with a red woolen cloth. These answered for a double purpose being used both as a lounge and as a table to eat from. Two side of the room are inclosed by sliding window frames, but instead of glass they use white paper for admitting the light. Over our heads, in graceful festoons, was hung a crape curtain of purple colors with tassels and cord. At the further end of the room a Japanese flag is hung, before the entrance of the private reception room, where the Commodore and the Princes have debated all official business, and where the treaty was signed. This room is furnished exactly like the larger one, with matting on the floor, benches with red cover over them, and gilt landscapes around the sides; but it has, in addition, a plain table for writing materials.

From the large reception room we passed through several halls and private rooms, for the attendants of the Princes, to the cooking rooms. The cooking utensils are of a very primitive description, consisting of a copper boiler set over an arch, with wooden spoons to stir up the rice with, and one kettle in which they boil eggs chopped up and colored with red and blue powders, fried clams, fried snakes, pound cake, candy and raw oysters. I did the raw oysters and pound cake justice, but I couldn't eat the other things. The dinner was served up on Lacyuer ware dishes, on a Lacyuer ware stand, with chop sticks to eat with. 

After dinner, Mortimer Kellogg and I concluded to take a walk, as we had nothing more to do at the house, and so started down toward Canajawa. We were accompanied by a couple of two-sworded silk pants Mandarins, to see that we conducted ourselves properly. As we walked along down the beach we saw great crowds of men, women and children picking up clams and oysters, (it was low tide,) and men fishing. 

We visited a pottery, and saw the workmen making tiles for the roofs of houses. Just beyond this, we came to a temple in the midst of a grove with a large gate before it. Here our guards wishes us to turn back, and even went so far as to catch me by the arm; but I shook the fellow off, and shaking a little bamboo cane in his face, gave him to understand that game cou'nt do. Finding we were determined to go on, they gave up the chase and turned back highly indignant. We now pursued our course undisturbed, visited several Japanese villages, and took a walk of some eight or ten miles in the country. We finally came out in Yokohama, and visited the grave of a mariner whom we buried here some time ago. The Japanese keep a guard over his grave night and day, for what purpose I cannot tell. Near his grave is a large collection of gravestones, with carved figures upon them. It is a romantic place.

We now visited another temple, and as a large crowd was now following us, I considered it to be a fit opportunity to address a few remarks to them upon the wickedness of the course they were pursuing, and exhorted them to reform. As my remarks were received with great applause, Kellogg mounted the rostrum and endeavored to persuade the deluded people to throw away their idols and repent. They listened with great attention, and I have no doubt were convinced, so far as they understood. We then visited several dwelling houses, a barber shop, and oil manufactory, and many other places, in all of which we were received, and had a capital time. One old woman got out a spinning wheel, with her roll of wool, and went to work spinning yarn. IT is exactly sic an instrument as I have often seen in use at home for the same purpose, making such a buzzing sound, and the old lady was delighted to see us so much interested in it. Many of the women brought their little children to have us pat their heads, and we stopped in nearly every house we came to and took a cup of tea and a pipe with the inmates. All have one room, with a matted floor, where they keep a vase of fire and their household gods, for they are very religious. Before one store door I noticed to fire engines. They are worked by brakes and have a jointed pipe like ours, but they have no air vessel to produce a continuous steam.

A crowd of people were constantly besieging us with invitations to write come thing on their fans. I wrote mottoes and proverbs on a great number of them, and they were very much delighted. -While Kellogg was writing on a fan some one of the crowd cut a button off his coast tail. He felt is as they jerked it off, and instantly taking it off, held it up before their eyes in a deprecating manner and showing them where the button ought to be cooly walked into the store nearby, and picking up a lacquered cup, put it in his coat pocket; then, standing on the steps, he made an address to the crowd on the wickedness of stealing. Either his address, or the cup he had taken, caused them to bring back the button and present it to him with many low bows before we got twenty yards from the place. He returned the cup. They have a great fancy for buttons or glass bottles and will trade almost everything they have for them, when they are alone. Every Japanese distrusts his neighbors. Their homes are built of stone and wood; many of them, with tiled roofs, are fire-proof. -We went into a barber-shop, and saw them having their heads shaved and hair done in peculiar style. I never had more fun in my life than I did this day." 

Thursday, June 20, 2013

News from Japan! (Hawaii 1854: Treaty of Amity and Friendship Announced)

Source: The Polynesian. Honolulu: Saturday, May 6, 1854.

The American Sloop-of-war SARATOGA, Capt. Walker, arrived at this port on the 29th ult., in 25 days from Japan, which is this shortest passage ever made.

The S. brings Capt. H.A. Adams, U.S. N., as bearer of despatches to the Government at Washington.

The point of interest in this intelligence is the fact that Com. Perry concluded a TREATY OF AMITY AND FRIENDSHIP weigh the EMPIRE OF JAPAN, at Kennegawa, near the city of Yedo, on the 28th of March, 1854. The long doubtful attempt has been entirely successful, and to the United States belongs the honor of making the first international treaty with Japan!

It will be recollected that in July of last year, Com. perry with two steam frigates and two sloops of war, paid a visit to Japan, as bearer of a letter to the Emperor from the President of the United States, asking them to relax the restrictive policy which has so long closed that empire t foreign intercourse. Having overcome the reluctance of the Japanese to hold intercourse with them, and by a firm but altogether peaceful course of proceedings, induced them to receive some presents and the letter from the President of the United States, Commodore Perry took his departure, with the assurance to the Japanese officials that he would return in the spring for an answer.

Having visited Loo Choo and China in the autumn and winter of 1853, the squadron, as spring approached, made their rendezvous at the Loo Choo group in February, and thence sailed for Japan. The fleet consisted of the Steam frigates Susquehanna, Mississippi and Powhatan, the Sloops-of-war Saratoga, Macedonian and Vandalia, and the store-ships Supply, Lexington and Southampton. 

On arriving at Yedo Bay, Commodore Perry was informed by the Japanese authorities that they were disposed to give the President's letter a most favorable consideration. They seemed remarkable conversant with the affairs of the United States, -understood the peculiarity of associated sovereignties under one federal head, -knew all about the Mexican war, its object, occasion and results, - and expressed much admiration for the nation altogether. With such feelings it required but little preliminary arrangement to fix upon Yokohama, (beach,) in the district of Kennegawa, as a suitable place for negotiation. This place is situated some 40 or 50 miles from the mouth of Yedo Bay, and a convenient locality for the purpose. 

The various articles brought from the United States, and designed as presents to the Japanese authorities, were landed, and at an appointed time were exhibited. These consisted of a rail-road, steam engine, cars, magnetic telegraph, improved instruments of husbandry, boxes of books, maps, charts, &c., &c., which were received by the Japanese and elicited much interest and admiration. 

After frequent meetings between Com. Perry on the part of the United States, and the High Commissioners deputed by the Emperor on the part of the Japanese, the terms were agreed upon, and the Treaty finally concluded on the 28th of March. 

We have not, of course, seen the document now in transit for the United States, but we understand that it opens to American citizens and American trade, the port of SAMODI, (the Odoarari, perhaps, of the maps,) on the island of Niphon, some 40 or 50 miles west of the entrance of Yedo Bay, and the port of CHICKADADA, on the island of Yesso, in the district of Matsmay, on the Straits of Sanga. The former was selected as the most convenient place for a depot, and arrangements were made with the Japanese for a supply of coal at that point. This is a place of considerable commercial importance, having a good harbor and a population of fifteen or twenty thousand. It's proximity to the manufacturing districts, which are not otherwise approachable by sea, renders it an important position, as a port for foreign trade. The vicinity of the the latter place has been frequently visited by American whale ships, where they have had great difficulty in procuring supplies on account of the restrictive policy of the Japanese. 

We understand the treaty arranges for intercourse at both of these places, -for the residence of American citizens there, and also for the residence of Consuls, if, in the future, either party should desire it. It also stipulates that Americans residing in or visiting these ports, shall be free to visit the interior to the distance pf ten or twelve miles without molestation.

It is said that the Japanese did not hesitate to enter into the most unqualified stipulations for the protection of their seamen or others thrown on their shores; indeed, they affirmed that it was already a part of the law of the Empire, by special edict. They even insisted that the respective governments should pay the expense of providing for the necessities of the citizens of the other, who might by their _______ , need aid and comfort.

This disposition of the Japanese to treat with care and attention shipwrecked men, is quite contrary to the generally received opinion of the world in this respect, and in justice to the Japanese, it but fair to state, that the restraints hitherto imposed upon American seamen, about which so much has been said and written, were rendered necessary by their over-bearing lawlessness, and vicious conduct. 

So much for the treaty concluded between the United States and Japan. Its details can only be known after it just promulgated by the government at Washington. It is not a commercial treaty, but one of Amity and Friendship, concluded in amity and friendship, and not an imposition of the strong upon the weak, whether they were willing or not. 

It is said that no supplies can be had for ships. except wood and water. There sis no beef, stock or poultry, and ships, at present, can depend upon nothing in the way of recruits. 

It is the first international treaty ever made by the empire of Japan, although repeated attempts have formerly been made to enter inso such relations with them of this character. The privileges enjoyed by the Dutch, were a more _____ to a private ____, having its principal design such as England's. 

The Russian fleet, consisting of sloop of war, frigate, sloop-of-war and store-ship, have been at Nagasaki all winter importuning Japan for a treaty, but left in the month of February, unable to effect their object. It remained for the United States, by her skill in peaceful diplomacy, to overcome obstacles hitherto considered insurmountable, the attempt to accomplish which, has excited the sneers, the ridicule and the contempt of a portion of the public press, we well in the United States as In Europe.

A Treaty has been made with Japan! The wedge has been entered, which will not fail to open that empire to the ultimate free residence, egress and ingress of Americans, and probably of all other commercial nations; -Com. perry has proved himself a skillful diplomatist and additional distinction has been earned for the American name and nation.

Had we time or space, we might enlarge upon the probable effects of this important measure; -its influence upon the commerce of the Pacific; upon the Atlantic and Pacific railroad; upon a line of trans-Pacific steamers, touching at these Islands, &c., &c. But we must close, for the present moment, merely with the expression of the belief, that in all these particulars, the opening of Japan by Com. Perry will exert a most important influence, and may possibly prove the only additional spur that was needed to put them all in motion. 

Monday, June 17, 2013

Junk Deserted (1853)

Source: The Polynesian. Honolulu: Saturday, December 3, 1853.

We have received from Capt. Johnson, of the whaleship Orozimbo, several specimens of Japanese chirography, written upon paper and strips of boards, of a curious character. It seems that Capt. J. fell in with a junk, off the Straits of Matsinai, drifting about at sea, deserted by her crew, and altogether at the mercy of the winds and waves. On boarding her, she was found to be laden principally with rice; but whither from or where bound, there was nothing about her from which a conjecture could be formed. She did not, however, appear to have been long deserted. 

The writings alluded to above were found on deck, secured to the masts, and were taken by Capt. Johnson with the idea that they might throw some light upon the occurrence which had occasioned her desertion. Such, however, is not the fact. We have submitted them to a Chinese scholar, who readily comprehends their meaning, and who finds they pertain to the religious worship of the Japanese, and are not a history of their disaster. The name of the city and a temple are conspicuous, and they were doubtless consecrated by the priests as a talisman against disaster to the vessel while performing a distant voyage.

Capt. Johnson took from the Junk in question, 333 sacks of rice and a few minor articles, when he was obliged to desert her by stress of weather, and leave her to her fate. Another Junk fell in with about the same time, deserted, he set fire to, to prevent her being run into in the night by vessels cruising in the vicinity.

The frequency with which Japanese vessels are fallen in with at sea either deserted, in distress, or which have lost their reckoning, indicates an imperfect knowledge of navigation among them truly surprising in this age of the world. They have even drifted entirely across the Pacific Ocean, and been lost on the northern coast of the American Continent. Others have brought up on this very island of Oahu, entirely lost in regard to their position, or the direction of their country. While others still are almost every year fallen in with at sea in all parts of the western Pacific, in every stage of distress and embarrassment. 

From these lost vessels quite a number of men have been rescued by whaleships and brought to this port, and an effort humanely made to return them to their country; generally, we believe, without success. After having visited a foreign country, and sailed in a foreign ship, they are not welcomed at home as the unfortunate should be, but are thrust out again to become homeless in the world, and wanderers among strangers. 

But judging from the signs of the times, a new light is about dawning upon exclusive Japan. Her old customs have already yielded to the intelligent pressure of outsiders. The cordon of boats, with which ships were formerly surrounded in their harbors has, for once, been removed, through the influence and firmness of Com. Perry. The contemptuous rejection of presents from foreign sources, so long adhered to, has at sat yielded to the same influences. But rifling as these indications may appear, considered in themselves alone, we regard them as the harbingers of a policy that will ultimately open Japan to the commerce, the religion and the fellowship of the civilized world.

The return of the American Squadron in the spring, to receive an answer to the President's letter, all be awaited with intense interest. The eyes of all Christiandom are turned in that direction; and the result of the attempt to open Japan has excited a deeper feeling among civilized nations, than any event of the present half century. If it fail, it will be renewed without a doubt; but if it succeed, as, we believe and hope it will, among the other benefits incident to such a result, we imagine the Japanese will learn a little more of the art of navigation, and that the next century all not find their Junks floating about upon the ocean deserted while staunch and strong, nor their wrecked men thrust out from their country when humanly returned to them by the benevolence of foreigners, whom they now affect to despise. 

Thursday, June 13, 2013

U.S.S. Mississippi (Marshall Islands Commemorative Stamp)

Japan Expedition: Regulations (1854)

Source: The Polynesian. Honolulu: Saturday, November 18, 1854.

Agreed to between Commodore Matthew C. Perry, Special Envoy to Japan from the United States of America, and HAYASHI DIAGAKU NO-KA-MI; IDO, Prince of Tus-ssima; IZAVA, Prince of Mim-saki ; TSUDZUKI, Prince of Suruga ; UDONO, Member of the Board of Revenue ; TAKE NO UCHI SHEITARO, and MATSISAKI MICHIATARO, Commissioners of the Emperor of Japan, on behalf of their respective Governments.

Article 1st.-The Imperial Governors of Simoda will place watch-stations wherever they deem
best, to designate the limits of their jurisdiction; -but Americans are at liberty to go through them,
unrestricted, within tho limits of seven Japanese ri, or miles; and those who are found transgressing Japanese laws may be apprehended by the police, and taken on board their ship.

Art. 2d:-Three landing-places shall be constructed for the boats of merchant ships and whale ships resorting to this port; one at Simoda, one at Kakizaki. and the third at the brook lying south-east of Centre Island. The citizens of the United States will, of course, treat the Japanese officers with proper respect.

Art. 3.-Americans, when on shore, are not allowed access to military establishments or private houses, without leave ; hut they can enter shops and visit temples as they please. 

Art. 4:-Two Templcs,the Rioshen at Simoda, and the Yokuslien at Kakizki, are assigned as resting-places for persons in their walks, until public houses and inns are erected for their convenience.

Art. 5th:-Near the Temple Yokushen nt Knkizaki, a burial-ground has been set apart for Americans, where the graves and tombs shall not be molested.

Art 6th.-It is stipulated in the treaty of Kanagawa, that coal will be furnished at Hakodadi, but as it is very difficult for the Japanese to supply it at that port, Commodore Perry promises to mention this to his Government, in order that the Japanese Government may be relieved from the obligation of making that port a coal depot.

Art. 7th:-It is agreed that henceforth the Chinese language shall not be employed in official communications between the two Gov-ernments, except when there is no Dutch

Art. 8th:-A. Harbor-master and three skillful pilots have been appointed for the port of Simoda.

Art. 9th:-Whenever goods are selected in the shops, they shall be marked with the name of the purchaser and the price agreed upon,and then be sent to the Goyoshi, or the Government office, where the money is to be paid to Japanese officers, and the articles delivered by them.

Art. 10th:-The shooting of birds and animals is generally forbidden in Japan, and this law is therefore to bo observed by all Americans.

Art. 11th:-It is hereby agreed that five Japanese ri, or miles, be the limit allowed to the Americans at Hakodadi, and the requirements contained in Art 1st of these regulations are
hereby made also applicable to that port within that distance.

Art. 12th:-His Majesty the Emperor of Japan is at liberty to appoint whoever he pleases to receive the ratification of the Treaty of Kanagawa, and give an acknowledgment on his part. It is agreed that nothing herein contained shall in any way affect or modify the stipulation of the Treaty of Kanngawa, should that be found to bo contrary to these regulations.

In witness whereof, copies of these Additional Regulations have been signed and sealed in the
English and Japanese languages by the respective parties, and a certified translation in tho Dutch language, and ¡exchanged by the Commissioners of the United States and Japan.
Simoda, Japan, June 17th, 1854.

(Signed) M. C. PERRY.
Commander in-chief of the U. S. Naval Forces in the East India, China, and Japan seas ;and Special Envoy to Japan.